Pengaruh Pre-Treatment Kimia dan Biologi Terhadap Produksi Biogas dari Kulit Kopi

Dennis Farina Nury, Muhammad Zulfikar Luthfi, Ahmad Rifqiyan Farohi, Tri Widjaja


Coffee, as a major commodity in Indonesia, produces a huge number of byproducts and residues during the processing process. Coffee wastes and byproducts produced during coffee berry processing are a major source of contamination and represent significant environmental challenges in the coffee production process. One promising alternative in utilizing coffee wastes is converting into energy source i.e, of biogas from coffee pulp. Coffee pulp has toxic components that act as a methane inhibitor; these type of biomass have a problem with the lignin degradation process, which binds cellulose and hemicellulose. The use of cow's rumen fluid for methane production from coffee pulp is still rare, particularly for rumen fluid. Chemical pretreatment was carried out using alkali-peroxide followed by rumen fluid pretreatment. The performance of biogas produced from coffee pulp (with and without pretreatment) using rumen fluid as an inoculum has been investigated. Biogas was produced in a semi-batch reactor with a working volume of 2 liters for 30 days. Removal lignin, SS, VFA, and biogas yield were measured. This study aims to determine the biogas production from coffee pulp using variation HRT 20 and 30 days. It can be concluded that chemical pretreatment of NaOH - H2O2 combination can reduce lignin up to 75.02%. The volume of biogas produced increased with chemical pretreatment and rumen fluid as compared to the substrate with only rumen pretreatment According to Gas Chromatography analysis, the methane gas obtained from chemical pretreatment and rumen with HRT 30 days is 47.93%, while the methane obtained from rumen pretreatment with HRT 30 days is 34.28%.


Biogas, Coffee Pulp, Lignin, NaOH-H2O2 Pretreatment, Rumen Fluid

Full Text:



A. Abraham et al., “Pretreatment strategies for enhanced biogas production from lignocellulosic biomass,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 301, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122725.

E. Martínez-Gutiérrez, “Biogas production from different lignocellulosic biomass sources: advances and perspectives,” 3 Biotech, vol. 8, no. 5, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s13205-018-1257-4.

T. Widjaja, T. Iswanto, A. Altway, M. Shovitri, and S. R. Juliastuti, “Methane production from coffee pulp by microorganism of rumen fluid and cow dung in co-digestion,” Chem. Eng. Trans., vol. 56, pp. 1465–1470, 2017, doi: 10.3303/CET1756245.

S. R. Juliastuti, T. Widjaja, A. Altway, V. A. Sari, D. Arista, and T. Iswanto, “The effects of microorganism on coffee pulp pretreatment as a source of biogas production,” MATEC Web Conf., vol. 156, pp. 1–7, 2018, doi: 10.1051/matecconf/201815603010.

T. Selvankumar et al., “Process optimization of biogas energy production from cow dung with alkali pre-treated coffee pulp,” 3 Biotech, vol. 7, no. 4, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s13205-017-0884-5.

G. Corro, U. Pal, F. Bañuelos, and M. Rosas, “Generation of biogas from coffee-pulp and cow-dung co-digestion: Infrared studies of postcombustion emissions,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 74, pp. 471–481, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2013.07.017.

S. R. Juliastuti, T. Widjaja, A. Altway, and T. Iswanto, “Biogas production from pretreated coffee-pulp waste by mixture of cow dung and rumen fluid in co-digestion,” AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 1840, 2017, doi: 10.1063/1.4982341.

M. Rollini, C. Sambusiti, A. Musatti, E. Ficara, I. Retinò, and F. Malpei, “Comparative performance of enzymatic and combined alkaline-enzymatic pretreatments on methane production from ensiled sorghum forage,” Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 2587–2595, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s00449-014-1235-0.

D. P. Singh and R. K. Trivedi, “Acid and alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass to produce ethanol as biofuel,” Int. J. ChemTech Res., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 727–734, 2013.

D. F. Nury, M. Z. Luthfi, and Y. Variyana, “Pengaruh Pretreatment Alkali Hidroksida Terhadap Produksi Gula Reduksi dari Limbah Kulit Kopi,” vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2023.

Y. Baba, C. Tada, Y. Fukuda, and Y. Nakai, “Improvement of methane production from waste paper by pretreatment with rumen fluid,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 128, pp. 94–99, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.09.077.

Z. B. Yue, W. W. Li, and H. Q. Yu, “Application of rumen microorganisms for anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 128, pp. 738–744, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.073.

A. K. Kivaisi and S. Eliapenda, “Application of rumen microorganisms for enhanced anaerobic degradation of bagasse and maize bran,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 45–50, 1995, doi: 10.1016/0961-9534(94)00075-5.

W. Jin, X. Xu, Y. Gao, F. Yang, and G. Wang, “Anaerobic fermentation of biogas liquid pretreated maize straw by rumen microorganisms in vitro,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 153, pp. 8–14, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.10.003.

H. Anwar, T. Widjaja, and D. H. Prajitno, “Produksi Biogas dari Jerami Padi Menggunakan Cairan Rumen dan Kotoran Sapi,” CHEESA Chem. Eng. Res. Artic., vol. 4, no. 1, p. 1, 2021, doi: 10.25273/cheesa.v4i1.7406.1-10.

T. Widjaja, Noviyanto, A. Altway, and S. Gunawan, “The effect of rumen and mixed microorganism (rumen and effective microorganism) on biogas production from rice straw waste,” ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 2702–2710, 2016.

G. L. Miller, “Use of Dinitrosalicylic Acid Reagent for Determination of Reducing Sugar,” Anal. Chem., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 426–428, 1959, doi: 10.1021/ac60147a030.

TAPPI, TAPPI/ANSI Test Method T 401 om-15 - Fiber analysis of paper and paperboard, no. January. 2018.

T. Widjaja, S. Nurkhamidah, A. Altway, A. A. Z. Rohmah, and F. Saepulah, “Chemical pre-treatments effect for reducing lignin on cocoa pulp waste for biogas production,” AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 2349, 2021, doi: 10.1063/5.0051903.

M. Asgher, Z. Ahmad, and H. M. N. Iqbal, “Alkali and enzymatic delignification of sugarcane bagasse to expose cellulose polymers for saccharification and bio-ethanol production,” Ind. Crops Prod., vol. 44, pp. 488–495, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.10.005.

T. Widjaja, A. Altway, S. Nurkhamidah, L. Edahwati, F. Z. Lini, and F. Oktafia, “The effect of pretreatment and variety of microorganisms to the production of ethanol from coffee pulp,” ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 1056–1060, 2016.

D. N. Afifah, N. Damajanti, M. Mustholidah, and H. Hariyanti, “Delignification of Cassava Peel by Using Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Method: Study of Peroxide Concentration, Solid/Liquid Ratio, and pH,” J. Tek. Kim. dan Lingkung., vol. 6, no. 2, p. 128, 2022, doi: 10.33795/jtkl.v6i2.334.

J. A. Ferreira, P. Brancoli, S. Agnihotri, K. Bolton, and M. J. Taherzadeh, A review of integration strategies of lignocelluloses and other wastes in 1st generation bioethanol processes, vol. 75. Elsevier Ltd, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2018.09.006.

S. J. Malode, K. K. Prabhu, R. J. Mascarenhas, N. P. Shetti, and T. M. Aminabhavi, “Recent advances and viability in biofuel production,” Energy Convers. Manag. X, vol. 10, no. December 2020, p. 100070, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.ecmx.2020.100070.

A. Mamun, A. Pet, and E. Biotechnol, “Production of Biogas by Utilizing Rumen Digesta for Sustainable Environment,” Arch. Pet. Environ. Biotechnol., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1–9, 2018, doi: 10.29011/2574-7614.100038.

“Enhanced Bioethanol Production by H2O2 PretreatmentHydrolysis-Fermentation of Rice Husk”, [Online]. Available:

H. Hermansyah, F. F. Fedrizal, A. Wijanarko, M. Sahlan, T. S. Utami, and R. Arbianti, “Biogas production from co-digestion of cocoa pod husk and cow manure with cow rumen fluid as inoculum,” AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 2255, no. September, 2020, doi: 10.1063/5.0017383.

V. Barlianti, D. Dahnum, H. Hendarsyah, and H. Abimanyu, “Effect of Alkaline Pretreatment on Properties of Lignocellulosic Oil Palm Waste,” vol. 16, pp. 195–201, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.proche.2015.12.036.


  • There are currently no refbacks.